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About this book The three volumes in The Encyclopedia of Human Resource Management offer a comprehensive review of the essential issues and most important information available on the topic. Each volume in the encyclopedia contains contributions from some of the most celebrated names in the field of human resource management HRM and addresses the myriad challenges faced by today's human resource professionals. Author Bios William J.
Rothwell , Ph. He is the author, coauthor, or editor of over 60 books and hundreds of articles and book chapters on human resource management, training, and development. Export Citation s. Export Citation. Plain Text.
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Education under Attack It was 9 October The school bus, a converted truck, had travelled only a few hundred yards from Khushal school in Mingora, northwest Pakistan, when a masked man stepped in front of the vehicle. An accomplice armed with a pistol climbed onto the tailgate at the rear, leaned over and asked which of the 20 schoolgirls huddled inside was Malala. When the driver stepped on the accelerator, the gunman opened fire, shooting Malala in the head. In doing so, it provides the most extensive documentation of attacks on education to date. Education under Attack includes: A summary providing an overview of the main points and key recommendations.
A methodology section outlining the methods used in the research and the principal challenges faced.see url
Sustainable Development Goals - Wikipedia
A global overview providing a more detailed picture of the scale, nature, motives and impact of attacks on education and the variety of responses that are being, or could be, made. Understanding how this still occurs amid the ever increasing social enlightenment of the 21st century—and under the auspices of a vigilant global developmental community—is one of the key challenges of our time.
The science of food security aims to address such concerns. By understanding the multiplicity of the phenomenon, practitioners of global multilateral hegemony seek to shape appropriate policy to address these issues. The difficulty however is that the phenomenon is increasingly wrapped up inside an ever growing bundle of societal aspirations including inter-alia under-nutrition, poverty, sustainability, free trade, national self sufficiency, reducing female subjugation and so on.
Any solutions therefore, involve fully understanding just what is indeed included, implied, understood or excluded within the food security catchall. Indeed, until such time as consensus can be found that adequately binds the phenomenon within a fixed delineated concept, current efforts to address the multitude of often divergent threads only serves to dilute efforts and confound attempts to once-and-for-all bring these unacceptable figures under control.
Over the last 40 years since adequate records have been kept , the numbers of hungry and malnourished people around the world have hovered between million and 1. Food security then, briefly and for introductory purposes, can be thought of as understanding how and why this phenomenon exists and continues to exist to the extent that it does. Yet despite the global reach of the phenomenon and the deceptively simple introductory definition, food security still engenders widespread misconception and misunderstanding [ 2 ].
Another frequently perpetuated misconception is that food insecurity is the sole preserve of developing countries [ 2 ]. Once again however, the reality is far different, on the contrary in fact; it can be seen that many developed economies too suffer the same inequalities of food and by extension—nutritional distribution as the more developing regions; although granted, largely to a lesser extent [ 2 ]. So, in an attempt to add to the literature that seeks to set the record straight, we once again ask—what is food security? In answer, at its very basic it means regularly having enough food to eat; not just for today or tomorrow, but also next month and next year.
All very straightforward—so why the ongoing confusion? To help answer this, consider the various questions this apparently simple concept raises. As a starting point, for simplification; and without getting too far drawn into the nuances and complexities of the subject, the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO of the United Nations suggests, that food security is the product of food availability, food access, stability of supplies and biological utilisation [ 4 ].
This requires thought and consideration to be given to the physical availability of food at farms and in local markets. In turn this is predicated on well-functioning market infrastructures with adequate road and rail networks, as well as ensuring adequate storage and processing technologies [ 5 , 6 ]. Food access entails ensuring people have adequate access, both physical and economic to food through growing it; purchasing it; being gifted it; bartering or trading for it etc. This concept can be thought of as a package of entitlements that allows an individual to acquire and maintain appropriate foods for an adequate diet and nutritional level.
This might be directly obtained as mentioned through own-grown produce, earning sufficient income, barter and exchange; or indirectly via social arrangements either at the community or national levels such as through family, welfare systems, traditional rights, access to common resources and of course emergency food aid [ 7 , 8 ]. When talking of stability, although not a new idea, the realisation that food security can be lost as well as gained is of increasing concern within the food security debate [ 9 ].
As a result, the notion of risk management is gaining much credibility as a tool in the fight against hunger. Such consideration involves issues of stability and vulnerability; this can be of the wider economy in general; of livelihoods in particular; of incomes, or even of food supplies themselves concentrating on shocks, sudden or otherwise such as floods, droughts or pests etc.
Indeed it has been shown that optimum biological utilisation necessitates the need for proper health and child care; clean water and sanitation services; adequate knowledge of nutritional and physiological needs as well as the proper application of such knowledge [ 10 , 11 ].
The above, although slightly more detailed still only scratches the surface of the concept of food security. Yet even in this incarnation, hints as to the breadth and the true extent of the multi-dimensionality of food security issues start to emerge. With this in mind, consider then the various differing definitions used to describe this phenomenon. First off, it is worth noting that even back in a thorough study by Maxwell and Frankenberger had already identified close to separate definitions [ 12 ].
December 13, 2012 — August 10, 2013
That aside, and sticking with the more widely accepted current institutional definitions, there are perhaps two major bodies whose definitions are commonly quoted; those of the United Nations UN and various bodies of the United States US. Indeed as late as October the Committee on World Food Security CFS had attempted to, once again revise the terminology of their current definition to reflect popular progressive thinking [ 13 ]:.
Unfortunately however, these amendments were not endorsed due to being blocked by some countries. The US on the other hand employs several definitions depending on need and the many disparate institutional bodies. Firstly the USDA defines food security as [ 15 , 16 ]:. Food security includes at a minimum: 1 the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods, and 2 an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways e. The US also have the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, or more commonly the Public Law PL program which offers a more flexible definition to allow for a range of possible interventions.
Again based on Policy Determination 19 food security is determined as [ 18 ]:. There are of course others including those of the European Union and Oxfam etc. Looking at these definitions perhaps the first thing to note is that they collectively represent the more convergent of the many definitions on offer.
Yet even despite the certain striking similarities in overall conceptual design, in detail there are also many key differences. This is where food security begins to take on a complexity all of its own. What are the nutritional needs of humans?
Is it a one-size-fits-all deal or are there different nutritional needs for different people? Even when this can be agreed upon, who then determines, or sets the standards? For that matter too, what is the difference between sufficient and adequate or is there a difference?
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Furthermore does the availability of food in sufficient quantity also include consideration of quality; if so, again to what or whose standards?